Chemical Reduction


ZVI Inj3 cropA relatively recent in-situ method of environmental remediation, Chemical Reduction uses powerful reducing compounds to chemically treat contaminated soil and groundwater in place, or “in-situ”.

When reductant solutions, such as zero-valent iron (ZVI) or emulsified oils, are injected into the subsurface, they spread out and react with the contaminants that are present in soil and groundwater. A chemical reaction occurs that destroys the contaminants by breaking them down and converting them into less toxic compounds and harmless by-products, such as carbon dioxide and water. Secondary anaerobic bioremediation can then take place due to the removal of oxygen and reduced conditions created in the aquifer.

Reduction is the opposite chemical reaction to oxidation, either of which can be used for environmental remediation, depending on the contaminants of concern and geochemistry of the site.

Vertex specializes in the design, implementation and optimization of in-situ chemical reduction (ISCR) remedial programs. Geologic environments that Vertex staff has implemented ISCR programs at include:

  • Fractured rock
  • Glacial till
  • Sand and gravel deposits
  • Silt and clay
  • Karst


Compounds treated using ISCR include:

  • Chlorinated ethenes (PCE, TCE, DCE, VC, etc.)
  • Chlorinated ethanes (TCA, DCA, etc.)
  • Carbon tetrachloride
  • Chlorinated methanes (TCM, DCM)
  • Freon 11 & 113
  • Heavy metals & hexavalent chromium
  • Arsenic & selenium
  • NDMA
  • Lindane


The keys to the successful implementation of ISCR are choosing the right reductant and delivering the reagent to the contaminant(s). Vertex has developed injection methods using a variety of injection pumps and placement techniques that effectively deliver the reductant to the contaminant in a wide variety of geologic environments. Vertex offers clients a wide choice of reductants and will work with our clients to choose the most appropriate reductant for their needs. Vertex staff has experience with:

  • ZVI Inj4 cropZero-valent iron (ZVI)
  • Bi-metals
  • Nano-metals
  • Organic carbon substrates
  • Reductant gases such as H2S and H2
  • Ferrous sulphate
  • Sodium sulphite
  • Dithionite
  • MRC
  • EHC-M

Vertex combines strong theoretical understanding with practical experience to properly plan and implement the right remedial program for your site. Selecting Vertex to undertake your remediation project allows you to access a wealth of in‑situ remediation knowledge and experience.

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